Protected Farming in the Era of Climate-Smart Agriculture: A Photographic Overview

Document Type : Review


1 Vegetable crops Department , Agriculture and Biological Division- National Research Centre

2 Horticulture Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Kafrelshiekh University

3 Vegetable Crops Dept., Agriculture and Biological Research Institute, National Research Centre, 33 El Behouth St., Dokki, 12622 Giza, Egypt

4 Plant Nutrition Department, Agricultural and Biological Research Institute, National Research Centre, Egypt

5 Horticulture Dept., Faculty of Agriculture, Kafrelsheikh Uni., Kafr El-Sheikh, Egypt and College of Agricultural and Food Sciences, King Faisal University, Al-Hassa 31982, Saudi Arabia

6 Horticulture Dept., Faculty of Agriculture, Kafrelsheikh Uni., Kafr El-Sheikh, Egypt

7 DE MÉK, Institute of Animal Science, Biotechnology and Nature Conservation, Department of Animal Husbandry, Nanofood Laboratory, Debrecen University, 4032 Debrecen, Hungary

8 Soil and Water Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafr El-Sheikh, Egypt


In the last centuries, the agriculture depended on the fertile soils and beside the river, which helped the ancient humans to establish many civilizations like the Egyptian civilization. This agriculture was mainly depended on the open field cultivation to produce the necessary food for the human, but an urgent need was formed under the global overpopulation to produce more food using different farming systems such as soilless farming, protected cultivation, and hydroponics, etc. The protected farming allows producing crops (food) under controlled conditions to modify any natural environment prevent/ restrict the plant growth and its productivity. This work focuses on the protected farming and its association with climate changes or climate-smart-agriculture. The protected farming has several problems in the developing countries especially under using the low-tech protected farming technique. Climate-smart-agriculture is an agriculture, by which its productivity can be sustainably increased, its resilience to climate change can be enhanced, and greenhouse gases can be mitigated, as well as enhances achievement of national food security and development goals. The closed relationship between protected farming and climate-smart agriculture is needed to be investigated in more research. Therefore, this work reported on the protected farming and its potential against changing climate. This is also a call by Environment, Biodiversity and Soil Security (EBSS) for receiving articles on protected agriculture under climate-smart agriculture approach, their challenges, their obstacles and the novel solutions in this concern.


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